Vetting the Priest in Zechariah 3: The Satan between Divine and Achaemenid Administrations
This article argues the Satan in Zech 3 was modeled on Achaemenid imperial structure. First, the term in the Hebrew Bible is discussed. Second, a brief overview of Achaemenid offices and loyalty ceremonies is given. These are applied to Zech 3 and the Satan, arguing that the vision is a heavenly version of satrapal confirmation of priests. The article concludes by discussing imperial and theological hubris, arguing that Zech 3 is an instance of political Persian, rather than “Zoroastrian,” influence.