The First Encounter of the Golah and Their "Adversaries" (Ezra 4:1–5): Who Are the Adversaries, and on What Is the Adversity Based?
Ezra 4:1–5 narrates the first encounter of the golah with the “other,” after the golah arrive in the land. Against the tendency to identify the “other” with a specific group of people, the text employs only vague descriptions. A narrative analysis reveals that the “other” group includes all and any non-golah people. Claims for participation in the building by the “other,” and refusal by the golah leaders, are ultimately based on their cultic differences.